What are cloud metrics?

The Cloud realm in XDMoD tracks events that occur in cloud infrastructure systems which can also referred to as Infrastructure as a Service(IaaS) cloud computing systems. A variety of events are tracked such as starting or ending sessions of a VM or the amount of root volume storage used by running sessions. The characteristics of cloud instances differ in several ways from traditional HPC resources, hence the metrics that we track for cloud systems differ from the metrics we track for traditional HPC jobs. In this beta release we support an initial set of cloud metrics with additional metrics to be added in subsequent releases.

Available metrics (8.0beta)

  • Average Memory Reserved Weighted By Wall Hours (Bytes)
    • The average amount of memory (in bytes) reserved by running sessions, weighted by wall hours.
  • Average Root Volume Storage Reserved Weighed By Wall Hours (Bytes)
    • The average amount of root volume disk space (in bytes) reserved by running sessions, weighted by wall hours.
  • Average Wall Hours per Session
    • The average wall time that a session was running, in hours.
  • Core Hours: Total
    • The total number of core hours consumed by running sessions.
  • Number of Sessions Ended
    • The total number of sessions that were ended on a cloud resource. A session is ended when a VM is paused, shelved, stopped, or terminated on a cloud resource.
  • Number of Active Sessions
    • The total number of sessions on a cloud resource.
  • Number of Sessions Started
    • The total number of sessions started on a cloud resource. A session begins when a VM is created, unshelved, or resumes running on a cloud resource.
  • Wall Hours: Total
    • The total wall time in which a sessions was running, in hours.

Dimensions available for grouping

  • Instance Type
    • The instance type of the virtual machines.
  • Project
    • The project associated with a running session of a virtual machine.
  • Resource
    • A resource is defined as any remote infrastructure that hosts cloud instances.
  • VM Size: Cores
    • A categorization of sessions into discrete groups based on the number of cores used by each VM.
  • VM Size: Memory
    • A categorization of sessions into discrete groups based on the amount of memory reserved by each VM.

Getting cloud metrics data

XDMoD provides the ability to read data from a predefined infrastructure-agnostic file format containing cloud system events. The schema for this file can be found in configuration/etl/etl_schemas.d/cloud/event.schema.json. For OpenStack based systems we also support data ingest using the OpenStack API and a patch to create cloud event logs for direct ingestion into XDMoD.

Events needed

There are a set of events that are necessary to be included in the cloud log files in order for the cloud metrics to display accurate data. Below is a list of a few examples of these events while the full list of events that XDMoD tracks can be found in the file configuration/etl/etl_data.d/cloud_common/event_type.json

  • Starting and stopping an instance.
  • Starting and stopping a storage volume.
  • Attaching or detaching a storage volume.
  • Instance heartbeat - This is an event that reports if an instance is still active. This event is usually reported once an hour and is required for accurate displaying of cloud metrics.

Details of OpenStack file format for ingestion

The XDMoD team has released a set of patches and a script that will create a properly formatted JSON file for ingestion by XDMoD. These patches and the script to create a JSON file for ingestion can be found in the openstack-api-reporting-patch repository.

Once the patch is installed the file should be run once a day to get event data from the previous day.

Details of generic file format for ingestion

If you choose to use the generic file format for ingesting event data each event being tracked should create a JSON record with the following attributes. The formatting below is purely for readability. When adding events to your JSON log file there should only be line breaks between each event record, not each attribute in the event record.

	"node_controller": "IP address of node controller",
	"public_ip": "Publically available IP address",
	"account": "Account that user is logged into",
	"event_type": "Type of event",
	"event_time": "Time that event happened",
	"instance_type": {
		"name": "Name of VM",
		"cpu": "Number of CPU's the instance has",
		"memory": "Amount of memory the instance has",
		"disk": "Amount of storage space in GB this instance has",
		"networkInterfaces": "Number of network interfaces"
	"image_type": "Name of the type of image this instance uses",
	"instance_id": "ID for the VM instance",
	"record_type": "Type of record from list in modw_cloud.record_type table",
	"block_devices": [{
		"account": "Account that the storage device belongs to",
		"attach_time": "Time that the storage device was attached to this instance",
		"backing": "type of storage used for this block device, either ebs or instance-store",
		"create_time": "Time the storage device was created",
		"user": "User that the storage device was created by",
		"id": "ID of the storage volume",
		"size": "Size in GB of the storage volume"
	"private_ip": "Private IP address used by the instance",
	"root_type": "Type of storage initial storage volume is, either ebs or instance-store"

Special notes

  • The instance_type attribute is a JSON Object with details of the instance type for the VM this event occurred on.
  • The block_devices attribute is a JSON object that lists information about block storage devices attached to this VM when the event occurred. If multiple storage devices are attached the should each be listed here as a separate JSON object.

Adding and enabling cloud resources

Add a cloud resource

Cloud resources are added by using the xdmod-setup command.

  1. Type xdmod-setup.
  2. Select option 4, Resources, on Open XDMoD Setup screen.
  3. Then select option 1, Add a new resource.
  4. Enter information for the prompts that follow. When you see the Resource Type prompt, enter cloud as the resource type.
  5. Once you finish with all the prompts you will be redirected to the Resource Setup screen. At this screen choose the s option to save the information you just entered to the resources.json configuration file.
  6. Run the following command from the command line to load data from resources.json file into the database: php /usr/share/xdmod/tools/etl/etl_overseer.php -p ingest-resources

Ingesting cloud event data

The commands that need to be run to ingest your cloud data depend on the format of the event data in your cloud log files. The -d option is used to specify a directory where the log files are located. When running this command replace /path/to/log/files with the directory where your log files are.

Generic format

php /usr/share/xdmod/tools/etl/etl_overseer.php -p jobs-common -p jobs-cloud-common -p ingest-resources &&
php /usr/share/xdmod/tools/etl/etl_overseer.php -p jobs-cloud-eucalyptus -r name_of_resource -d "CLOUD_EVENT_LOG_DIRECTORY=/path/to/log/files" &&
php /usr/share/xdmod/tools/etl/etl_overseer.php -p cloud-state-pipeline &&
xdmod-build-filter-lists --realm Cloud

OpenStack format

php /usr/share/xdmod/tools/etl/etl_overseer.php -p jobs-common -p jobs-cloud-common -p ingest-resources &&
php /usr/share/xdmod/tools/etl/etl_overseer.php -p jobs-cloud-ingest-openstack -r name_of_resource -d "CLOUD_EVENT_LOG_DIRECTORY=/path/to/log/files" -p jobs-cloud-extract-openstack &&
php /usr/share/xdmod/tools/etl/etl_overseer.php -p cloud-state-pipeline &&
xdmod-build-filter-lists --realm Cloud

Known issues

  • Cloud metrics do not display for any date past the date you last ingested jobs data. In order to prevent this your XDMoD installation must ingest new jobs data daily.